Allergy is a disease that almost everyone in the city encounters. This is too strong a reaction of the body to stimuli coming from the external environment.
Six types of allergic diseases are the most common:
Respiratory allergy. It is caused by very small allergens in the air (plant pollen, animal fur, fungal mold spores, mites, dust, cockroaches and others). These allergens cause uncontrolled sneezing, continuous runny nose, bronchitis and shortness of breath. It is also associated with allergic conjunctivitis, accompanied by tearing and itchy eyelids. Hay fever, allergic rhinitis and bronchial asthma are the main symptoms of respiratory allergies.
Skin allergy. Metals, latex, medicines and cosmetics, household chemistry, food products and other allergens affect the skin directly or penetrate the body through a different route (for example through the mucous membrane of the digestive tract). They can cause skin diseases known as allergenic disorders: atopic dermatitis (exudative so-called), urticaria, contact dermatitis. With allergy-prone skin pruritus, there is a rash in the form of urticaria (vesicles, swelling, burning) or eczema (peeling, dryness, changes on the surface of the skin).
Food alergy. It appears not only when eating certain types of products, but even when preparing a meal from them. It manifests itself in various ways. It can be eczema, nausea and stomach pain, angioneurotic edema, urticaria, migraine, sometimes even anaphylactic shock. The most known and most common types of food allergies include cow’s milk allergy, egg white, poultry, seafood and fish.
Allergy to insects. Appears when in contact with insects (wasps, bees, cockroaches, moths, mosquitoes, etc.) as a result of inhaling particles from their bodies or their waste products, as well as from bites. Allergy to the bite of a wasp, bee or hornet can be manifested in the form of a local skin reaction (edema) and a greater number of general reactions such as dizziness, weakness, hypotension, dyspnoea and urticaria. There may even be anaphylactic shock – the condition worsens significantly, weakness, vomiting, cramps and abdominal pain, and swelling of the throat. If no remedial action is taken, a person can die. Due to the inhalation of particles from bodies and waste products of insects (cockroaches), there may also be sympoms of bronchial asthma.
Allergy to medicines. Most often it concerns antibiotics, especially from the group of penicillins, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory preparations (analgesics, salicylates), sulfonamides, hormones (insulin), serum preparations – albumin and gamma-globulin, enzyme preparations, X-ray impervious substances, vitamins (from group B or multivitamins) ), local anesthetics (anesthetics, especially procaine). Symptoms of drug allergies can be very different – from slight itching and bouts of breathlessness to severe skin damage, internal organs (kidneys, heart, liver) and anaphylactic shock.
Allergy to infections. In most people in the bronchi live microorganisms that do not cause any disease in a healthy person. However, if a person develops an allergy to any of these microorganisms, it may become the cause of infectious asthma. Mechanisms of allergy to non-pathogenic and conditionally pathogenic microorganisms are not fully known.