In order to regenerate the joints’ health and reduce the risk of arthritis, it is worth using the Biofiton Healthy Joints diet supplement.
Phytotablets Biofiton Healthy Joints contain vegetable raw materials whose actions are focused on:
1. REGENERATION OF JOINT HEALTH. Glucosamine and biologically active substances contained in the Scottish Pine Needles, Willow Root, Burdock Root and Birch Leaves have properties that allow the ponds to be purified from salt deposits, which promotes the regeneration of their motility.
2. COMPONENTS FOR CONSTRUCTION CELLS. Glucosamine promotes the synthesis of cells in joint tissues and the production of synovial fluid.
3. REDUCTION OF PRODUCTS OF TRANSMISSION OF MATERIALS. Due to the diuretic properties and the ability to regulate salt metabolism processes, willow bark, cowberry leaves, laurel leaves and Knotgrass parts contribute to the release (excretion) of toxins and salts from the body.
4. ELIMINATION OF EXCESSIVE LIQUID. Biological compounds contained in the leaves of cowberry, parts of the Bur Marigold, parts of the knotgrass, burdock roots, birch leaves, laurel leaves and hops cones have diuretic properties and excrete excess fluid from the body.

Arthritis (formerly gout), when it involves large toes – a disease characterized usually by recurrent episodes of acute arthritis – red, tender, hot swelling of the joint. Most often (in about 50% of cases) it includes the metatarsophalangeal joint located at the base of the large toe. It can also occur as gout nodule, kidney stones or gout nephropathy. The cause of gout is elevated levels of uric acid in the blood. This acid crystallizes, and its crystals are deposited in the joints, tendons and surrounding tissue.

Clinical diagnosis confirms the presence of characteristic crystals in the synovial fluid. Treatment by administering non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), steroids or colchicine relieves symptoms. After resolution of acute attacks, uric acid levels can usually be reduced through lifestyle modifications, and for people with frequent gout attacks, long-term prevention is ensured by allopurinol or probenecid.

In the last decades, there has been an increase in the incidence of gout, which currently affects about 1-2% of the population of the West at some stage of life. It is believed that the reason for this increase is due to a larger number of risk factors in the population, such as metabolic syndrome, higher life expectancy and changes in diet. In the past, gout has been called “disease of kings” or “disease of rich people”.

SYMPTOMS
Gout may have various symptoms, but usually its symptoms are recurrent attacks of acute arthritis (redness, tenderness, local fever and swelling in the joint). The most common disease is the metatarsophalangeal joint at the base of the big toe – this happens in half of the cases. Other joints, such as ankle, knee joints, wrist joints and fingers, are also often affected. Pain in the joints usually lasts from two to four hours and appears in the night due to the body temperature then occurring. Other symptoms that occasionally accompany painful joints are fatigue and high fever.
Prolonged elevation of uric acid (hyperuricemia) may cause other symptoms, such as the accumulation of hard, painless uric acid crystals, i.e. the top glands. A large number of nodules may lead to chronic arthritis due to bone erosions. At an elevated level of uric acid, the crystals may also precipitate in the kidneys, causing kidney stones to form, followed by gout nephropathy.

CAUSES
The cause of gout is increased concentration of uric acid in the blood – hyperuricemia. It appears for various reasons, such as diet, genetic predisposition or reduced urate excretion, uric acid salt. The main available hyperuricaemia is the reduced excretion of urate by the kidneys. Dna develops in about 10% of people suffering from hyperuricemia. However, the risk depends on the severity of hyperuricemia. At the level of 415-530 μmol / l (7 and 8.9 mg / dl) it is 0.5% per year, with the level above 535 μmol / l (9 mg / dL) should be used up to 4.5% per year.
Lifestyle
An inadequate diet is responsible for about 12% of gout cases, showing strong associations with alcohol consumption, fructose-sweetened beverages, meat and seafood. Other factors that cause gout are physical injuries and surgical operations. The authors of the studies, the results of which are announced in March 2004. In July 2008 They believe that the diet (once considered to be included in the bottom) contains vegetables rich in purine (eg Beans, peas, lentils and spinach) and protein it does not contribute to its development. Factors that reduce the probable risk of gout are the consumption of coffee, vitamin C and dairy products, as well as physical activity. Watch out for yourself that they will take into account their ability to reduce insulin resistance.
Genetic factors
The occurrence of gout is a genetically determined part. Genetic factors accepted for about 60% of uric acid variability. Three genes were found to be associated with this disease: SLC2A9, SLC22A12 and ABCG2, and their variability could roughly double the risk. The loss of the SLC2A9 and SLC22A12 gene mutation function inherited hyperuricemia by lowering urate absorption and uncontrolled secretion. Gout is also caused by complications in several rare genetic disorders, such as familial juvenile hyperuricemic nephropathy, spinal cystic function, hyperactivity of phosphoribosylpyrophosphate synthetase and hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase-Natahana Lescha deficiency.
Diseases
Gout often occur in handling with other health problems. Metabolic syndrome, which is combined abdominal obesity, hypertension, insulin resistance and misuse of lipids, occurs in almost 75% of gout cases. For other diseases where gout is caused by complications, combinations of: polycythemia, lead poisoning, insufficiency of indicators, haemolytic anemia, psoriasis and transplantation on devices. Body mass index (BMI) equal to or exceeds 35 three times extends the risk of gout in men. Risk factors are also protected by exposure to lead and the consumption of lead-contaminated alcohol, as pencils are used in the functioning of indicators. The Lesch-Nyhan syndrome is often used with gout. It has been found that sleep apnea is associated with an increased risk of gout attack.
Medicines
Beware that diuretics affect gout attacks, however, hydrochlorothiazide doses do not seem to raise the risk. Other drugs that are supposed to affect the severity of diseases are: vitamin B3 (niacin) and aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid). Immunosuppressants – cyclosporine and tacrolimus – also affect the risk of gout, especially tacrolimus when taken in action with hydrochlorothiazide.

PATHOPHYSIOLOGY
Gout is a disorder of purine metabolism and occurs when the final purine metabolite, uric acid, crystallizes in the form of monosodium urate, precipitating in the joints, in the tendons and surrounding tissues. These crystals then induce a local immune-mediated reaction – an inflammation in which one of the key proteins is interleukin-1β. The frequent occurrence of this disease was caused by the evolutionary loss of human and higher primate uricase, which breaks down uric acid.
We do not know exactly what causes the precipitation of uric acid. Although it can crystallize at a normal level, it is more likely to crystallize at an elevated level. Other important factors that cause severe seizures include low temperature, rapid changes in uric acid levels, acidosis, fluid accumulation in the joints, and extracellular matrix proteins such as proteoglycans, collagens and chondroitin sulfate. Increased precipitation at low temperatures may partly explain why foot joints are most vulnerable. Sudden changes in uric acid may occur for various reasons, such as shock, surgery, chemotherapy, diuretics or discontinuation or initiation of allopurinol. It is believed that calcium channel blockers and losartan increase the risk of gout to a lesser extent than other antihypertensive drugs.
DIAGNOSTICS
Dna can be diagnosed and treated without further examination in people suffering from hyperuricaemia and classical gout, however, analysis of synovial fluid should be performed in case of doubt about the diagnosis. X-ray images, although useful for diagnosing chronic gout, have little use in acute attacks.
Synovial fluid
Diagnosis of gout is determined by the presence of monosodium urate crystals in the synovial fluid or the presence of gouty nodules. All samples of synovial fluid collected from undiagnosed joints should be examined for the presence of these crystals. Samples viewed under a microscope that uses polarized light have a shape resembling needles and exhibit a strong birefringence negativity. This test is difficult to carry out and usually requires a properly trained observer. The fluid test must be carried out as soon as possible after it has been taken, since both temperature and pH affect the solubility. Blood test
Hyperuricemia is a classic property of gout; however, it is not found in almost half of the gout cases, and most people who have elevated uric acid levels never get gout. For this reason, the measurement of uric acid concentration is of little use in diagnosis. Hyperuricemia occurs when plasma urine levels exceed 420 μmol / l (7.0 mg / dl) in men and 360 μmol / l (6.0 mg / dl) in women. Other often performed tests include the number of white blood cells, electrolytes, check of renal function (glomerular filtration rate) and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (Biernacki’s reaction, OB); however, both the white blood cell count and the erythrocyte precipitation test may give an elevated result due to gout in the absence of infection. A document was reported when the white blood cell count was 40.0 × 109 / L (40,000 / mm3).
Differential diagnosis
The most important symptom used in differential diagnosis in the bottom is septic arthritis. These should be taken into account in patients with symptoms of infection or those for whom treatment is not improving. Diagnosis can be supported by Gram staining and culture on a sample of synovial fluid. Other diseases that give similar symptoms include pseudogout (chondrocalcinosis) and rheumatoid arthritis. Rheumny glands, especially when they are not localized in the joint, may be mistaken for basal cell carcinoma or other cancer.

PREVENTION
Lowering the uric acid level may occur as a result of both changes in lifestyle and taking medication. In the case of diet and lifestyle, it is effective to limit the consumption of foods such as meat and seafood, taking the right amount of vitamin C, reducing alcohol and fructose, and avoiding obesity. The low-calorie diet used by obese people reduces the level of uric acid by 100 μmol / l (1.7 mg / dl). Taking 1500 mg of vitamin C a day reduces the risk of gout disease by 45%. With a reduced likelihood of this disease is also associated drinking coffee – but not tea. Gout may be secondary to sleep apnea due to secretion of purines by oxygen-depleted cells. Apnea treatment can then reduce the frequency of attacks.

TREATMENT
The initial goal of treatment is to alleviate the symptoms of acute attacks. Recurrent attacks can be prevented by using various medications to lower serum uric acid. Pain can be relieved by applying ice bags for 20 to 30 minutes several times a day. The treatment options for acute attacks include the intake of NSAIDs, colchicine and steroids; while all preventive drugs include allopurinol, febuxostat and probenecid. Lowering the level of uric acid can lead to cure of the disease. It is also important to treat comorbidities.

NSAIDs
NSAIDs (non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs) are usually the first medicines used to treat gout; no specific drug in this group is more effective than others. The improvement occurs after about 4 hours, and the recommended duration of treatment is from one week to two. However, it is not recommended to use these medications for certain health problems, such as gastrointestinal bleeding, renal failure or heart failure. Although the most commonly used NSAIDs were indometacin, alternatives such as ibuprofen may be better due to fewer side effects, but in the absence of high efficacy. People who are at risk of developing gastric side effects as a result of taking NSAIDs may be given a proton pump inhibitor.

colchicine
Colchicine is an alternative for people intolerant to NSAIDs. The limitation for its use are side effects (mainly gastrointestinal disorders). These disorders, however, depend on the dose, and the risk of their occurrence can be reduced using lower doses, although still effective. Colchicine may interact with other commonly used medicines, including atorvastatin and erythromycin.

steroids
Glucocorticoid is as effective as NSAIDs and can be used in cases where there are contraindications for NSAIDs. It also gives an improvement when it is injected by delivery; however, infectious arthritis should first be ruled out because the steroids make them worse.

Peglotykaza
Peglotykaza (Krystexxa) was in 2010 approved in the US drug used at the bottom. It is an alternative to those 3% of people who have intolerance to other medicines. Peglotica is administered as an intravenous infusion every two weeks and effectively reduces uric acid.

PREVENTION
There are many drugs that can be used to prevent another episode of gout. These include: xanthine oxidase inhibitors (including allopurinol and febuxostat) and uricosuric drugs (such as probenecid or sulfinpyrazone). Usually, they are not introduced earlier than one to two weeks after the acute attack has ceased due to the possibility of deterioration; often also for the first three to six months they are used in combination with NSAIDs or colchicine. They are recommended for people who have experienced at least two gout attacks, unless there are destructive changes in the joints, nodules or gout nephropathy, because the earlier use of drugs is considered unprofitable. The use of urate lowering agents should be increased until it drops below 300-360 μmol / l (5.0-6.0 mg / dl) and then continued for an indefinite period. If these medicines are used all the time at the time of the attack, it is recommended to stop the administration. When uric acid levels can not be reduced below 6.0 mg / dl and the attacks recur, treatment is considered ineffective or the underlying condition is refractory. Probenecid is generally less effective than allopurinol.
Uricosuric medications are usually preferred when the uric acid deficiency found on urine for 24 hours contributes to an acid concentration of less than 800 mg. However, they are not recommended when a patient had kidney stones. If more than 800 mg is excreted within 24 hours, indicating overproduction, the xanthine oxidase inhibitor appears to be more effective.
These inhibitors (such as allopurinol or febuxostat) block the production of uric acid, and long-term therapy with their use is safe, well-tolerated and can be used in people with renal insufficiency or who have uric acid stones. Allopurinol in a few cases became a cause of hypersensitivity; in this case, it is recommended to change to febuxostat.

Dietary supplements
In order to regenerate the joints’ health and reduce the risk of arthritis, it is worth using the Biofiton Healthy Joints diet supplement.

PROGNOSIS
Untreated, acute gout attack usually resolves within five to seven days. In 60% of cases, a second attack occurs within a year. People suffering from gout are a group of increased risk of hypertension, diabetes, metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular diseases and kidney diseases, so they are in an increased risk of death. This may be due in part to the association with insulin resistance and obesity, but the increased risk seems to be somewhat independent.
Untreated acute attacks of gout can lead to chronic gout, which causes damage to the surface of the joints, joint deformities and the formation of painful tophi nodules. These nodules occur in 30% of untreated patients over a five-year period, often on the ear epigloss, elbow appendix or on the Achilles tendon. Aggressive treatment may cause them to disappear. Frequent complications include kidney stones that affect between 10 and 40% of people and are caused by low urine pH, which contributes to the release of uric acid. Other forms of chronic renal failure may also occur.

 

EPIDEMIOLOGY
Dna affects about 1-2% of the western population at a certain stage of life and is becoming more and more common. From 1990 to 2010, the number of cases practically doubled. There is a belief that the increase in the number of cases is caused by the extension of life expectancy, diet change and the more common occurrences associated with gout, such as metabolic syndrome and hypertension. It has been found that the occurrence of gout is influenced by a number of factors, including age, ethnicity and the season of the year. The percentage of affected men over 30 and women over 50 is 2%.
In the United States, the probability of gout in African Americans is twice as high as that of Americans of European descent. There have also been many cases of disease among inhabitants of the Australian and Oceania and Maori islands from New Zealand, although the disease is rare in the Australian Aborigines despite the high mean serum uric acid concentration in this group. Gout has become commonplace in China, Polynesia and urban areas of sub-Saharan Africa. Some studies have shown that gout attacks are more common in spring. This is attributed to the seasonal change in diet, alcohol consumption, physical activity and temperature.

In order to regenerate the joints’ health and reduce the risk of arthritis, it is worth using the Biofiton Healthy Joints diet supplement.

Phytotablets Biofiton Healthy Joints contain vegetable raw materials whose actions are focused on:

1. REGENERATION OF JOINT HEALTH. Glucosamine and biologically active substances contained in the Scottish Pine Needles, the Willow Root, Burdock Root and Birch Leaves have properties that allow the ponds to be purified from salt deposits, which promotes the regeneration of their motility.

2. COMPONENTS FOR CONSTRUCTION CELLS. Glucosamine promotes the synthesis of cells in joint tissues and the production of synovial fluid.

3. REDUCTION OF PRODUCTS OF TRANSMISSION OF MATERIALS. Due to the diuretic properties and the ability to regulate salt metabolism processes, willow bark, lingonberry leaves, bay leaves and upper parts of the knotweed contribute to the release (excretion) of toxins and salts from the body.

4. ELIMINATION OF EXCESSIVE LIQUID. Biological compounds contained in the leaves of lingonberry, parts of the upper hitch, parts of the upper knotweed, burdock roots, birch leaves, laurel leaves and hops cones have diuretic properties and excrete excess fluid from the body.