For the protection and regeneration of the duodenum, it is worth using the BIOFITON® Healthy Liver Supplement:
• increasing the production and secretion of bile, improving its biochemical composition;
• support for anti-inflammatory, antibacterial and regenerative and defensive effects of hepatocytes;
• general strengthening effect and restoring the body’s level of essential vitamins and microelements
As a result of the action of the composition of biologically active substances BIOFITON® Healthy Liver, the functions of liver cells – hepatocytes – are restored, and thus the functions of the organ itself, on which the condition of the whole organism and each system depends separately.
Regeneration of hepatocytes ensures the reconstruction of three main liver functions: detoxification, synthesizing, and biliary formation. The reconstruction of these functions is expressed in:
• reducing pain and discomfort in the right hypochondrium;
• improving sleep quality;
• reducing tiredness;
• removal of symptoms of digestive processes disorders: flatulence, nausea, vomiting and normalization of faeces.
The duodenum is usually divided into four parts. From the stomach side these are:
• the upper part (Latin pars superior), the shortest (4-5 cm long) also called the duodenal bulb (Latin bulbus duodeni). This is the only fragment of the duodenum with a short dorsal mesentery, which is an extension of the larger network, thanks to which the stomach has greater freedom of movement. The hepatic duodenal ligament extending from the cavity of the liver to the upper duodenal flexion (Latin flexura duodeni superior) also reaches the upper duodenal circumference. This ligament is the lower part of the smaller network. The other parts of the duodenum are retroperitoneally retroperitoneally. On the inner surface of the duodenal bulb, circular folds begin 2-5 cm from the pylorus and are very rare, only slightly marked.
• the descending part (Latin pars descendens), 8-10 cm long, forms the upper and lower flexion of the duodenum. The common bile duct running downwards at the posterior and medial wall border of the descending part of the duodenum conveys the mucosa, producing a longitudinal fold of the duodenum (Latin plica longitudinalis duodeni), which at a distance of 10-12 cm from the pylorus ends conically convex towards the duodenal lumen with a larger papilla duodenum (Latin papilla duodeni major). Here the common bile duct (Latin ductus choledochus) and pancreatic duct (Latin ductus pancreaticus) escape. Through it, digestive enzymes and bile enter the duodenal lumen. 2 to 3 cm above the larger duodenal papilla, the smaller duodenal papilla (Latin papilla duodeni minor) often occurs only for the extra pancreatic duct (Latin ductus pancreaticus accessorius). The mucosa of the descending part of the duodenum produces densely distributed circular folds, and the lumen of this part is much narrower than that of the duodenal bulb.
• the horizontal (bottom) part (Latin pars horizontalis), about 6 cm long. Here, the light is narrower relative to the descending part of the duodenum, but the height and density of the circular folds increase.
• the ascending part (Latin pars ascendens), about 6 cm long, is the duodenal segment with the narrowest lumen and the most densely distributed circular folds.
The duodenum also has three bends:
• upper – between the stomach and the descending part.
• bottom – between the descending and horizontal part.
• duodenum-jejunum – on the border with the jejunum, it is affected by the Treitz ligament, also known as the duodenal pectoral muscle (Latin musculus suspensorius duodeni).
The food pulp passes from the stomach to the duodenum and mixes here with the secretions of the pancreas (pancreatic juice), liver (bile) and two types of intestinal glands:
• Brunner duodenal glands
• Lieberkühn intestinal glands
In the duodenum, there is a further stage of digestion and absorption of food nutrients. The descending and horizontal parts of the duodenum are the main place of absorption of digestive content. The pancreatic and hepatic ducts end together in the duodenum, where they form in its light a small haemorrhage called the Vatera papilla (Vateri papilla).
Vascularization of the stomach, pancreas and duodenum (only partially).
The duodenal bulb is directed horizontally backwards and to the right reaching the neck of the gallbladder. Here, the duodenum changes the direction of the upper bend of the duodenum and points downwards to the lower part of the head of the pancreas as the descending part of the duodenum. The duodenum again bends in the lower duodenal flexion to the left, embracing the horseshoe with its concave side of the pancreas head. Then the horizontal part of the duodenum runs from the right to the left to the superior mesenteric vessels, where it ends and eventually passes into the ascending part directed upwards until a strong duodenol-flexion, which passes into the jejunum.
In the supine position:
• upper part – begins to the right of the L1 shaft and when the stomach is full, it runs almost sagittally from the front to the back, while when the stomach is empty it takes the transverse direction,
• descending part – begins with the upper duodenal flexion at level L2 and runs on the right side of the spine to the lower duodenal flexion at level L3,
• the horizontal part – runs horizontally at L3, crossing the spine and large vessels,
• ascending part – runs parallel to the tail of the pancreas, ending at level L2 with a sharp duodenum-jejunal flexion;
In standing position:
• upper part – laid at level L2 or half L3,
• the horizontal part – it reaches L4 or even L5, and in older people it even reaches the cumulus (Latin promontorium), i.e. the intervertebral disc between L5 and S1,
• duodenol-flexion supported by duodenal punctiformis may fall slightly below L2;
When breathing: When you breathe in, the duodenum moves down and rises when you breathe out. With intensive inhalation and exhalation, the difference in the extreme positions of the duodenum can be two vertebrae. The smallest mobility has the horizontal part of the duodenum, and the largest upper part, connected to the liver through the hepatic-duodenal ligament and the ascending part, connected directly to the diaphragm by means of the duodenal pendular muscle.
• Upper part.
the anterior surface adheres to the trapezius liver, forming a duodenal impression, as well as to the neck of the gallbladder,
on the posterior surface lie the creations covered by the hepatic-duodenal ligament, i.e. the common bile duct, hepatic proper artery and portal vein;
• Descending part.
the upper half adheres to the right lobe of the liver and gallbladder,
the lower half adheres to the transverse colon
posterior surface adheres to the small lower right adrenal gland, to the renal cavity and the renal pelvis, to the right renal vein and to the beginning of the right ureter. In the trough formed of the duodenum and the head of the pancreas lies the common bile duct, connecting here with the pancreatic duct at half the height of the descending part. Between the head of the pancreas and the descending part runs the upper pancreatic-duodenal artery, which is a branch of the gastro-duodenal artery, which in turn is a branch from the common hepatic artery. The upper pancreatic-duodenal artery fuses on the posterior wall of the duodenum with the lower pancreatic-duodenal artery, originating from the upper mesenteric artery.
• Bottom part.
the anterior surface adheres to the transverse colon and to the jejunum loops. In addition, it is crossed by upper mesenteric vessels coming out from under the pancreas. The anterior surface is rarely crossed with the mesentery of the jejunum,
posterior surface adheres to the inferior vena cava and abdominal aorta;
• Ascending part.
the anterior surface is most often crossed by the mesentery of the jejunum. In addition, it is crossed by the upper mesenteric vessels coming out from under the pancreas, with the upper mesenteric vein located on the right side and the upper mesenteric artery on the left side,
posterior surface adheres to the larger left lumbar muscle;
Vascularization and innervation
The duodenum is supplied with blood mainly from two arteries: the upper pancreatic-duodenal artery (from the gastro-duodenal artery) and the lower pancreatic-duodenal artery (from the superior mesenteric artery). It is worth noting that this organ is vascularized both from the branches of the celiac trunk and the mesenteric artery. Venous blood flows into the portal vein with identical veins. The innervation originates from the vagus nerve (parasympathetic part) and sympathetic ganglion.
The most common duodenal disease is peptic ulcer in the course of gastric and duodenal ulcer. These ulcers can be the cause of significant ailments, as well as dangerous gastrointestinal bleeding, and sometimes intestinal perforation, which causes a serious complication called peritonitis.
The proximity of the upper duodenum with the gallbladder in gallbladder disease states creates the possibility of gallstones breaking into the duodenum.