GENERAL INFORMATION
Eucalyptus (Eucalyptus L’Hér., fr. Eucaalyptus, Ger. Blaugummibaum, it. Eucalipto, sp. Eucalypto) – a type of trees and shrubs belonging to the myrtaceae family. It includes about 600 species from Australia, New Guinea and Southeast Indonesia; The fossils discovered in Argentina show that in Eocene, representatives of the genus also appeared in South America.

In Australia, they form evergreen forests or thickets (scrubs). Eucalyptus were also widespread in tropical and subtropical areas of Africa, Asia and South America. Plantations of several dozen species at the end of the eighties of the XX century occupied 1.6 million ha in the world in countries with an appropriate climate.

PHARMACOLOGY
Eucalyptus leaf (Eucalypti folium) is herbal raw material – whole or fragmented, dried leaves of older branches with a content of at least 15 ml / kg of essential oil. Eucalypti oleum oil is obtained from the distillation with steam of the raw material. It is used in medicine and perfumery.
Eucalyptus oil is used to treat inflammation of the airways, persistent cough, runny nose, as well as inflammation of the bronchi and sinuses.

Eucalyptus oil used externally accelerates the healing of wounds, ulcers, boils, abscesses and burns. A few drops of oil added to the oil give an excellent means for massage and rubbing the chest in the case of infections, colds, bronchitis and asthma, as well as a remedy for fungal infections and to deter parasites.

The diluted oil is used as an effective rinse aid for sore throats.

CHEMISTRY
The eucalyptus leaf contains a lot of essential oil, chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, ferulic acid, p-coumaroylquinone acid, flavonoids (rutin, quercitrin, quercetin), triterpene acids, phloroglucinoterpenes and their derivatives, tannins and polysaccharides. Eucalyptus oil used in the pharmaceutical, food and cosmetics industries. Eucalyptus bark contains a lot of tannins in the first place.

MORPHOLOGY
Sort
Evergreen (except for 10 species that lose leaves seasonally) shrubs or trees. The largest sizes – up to approx. 100 m high – are obtained from trees of the eucalyptus regnans species. In the 19th century, specimens of 150 m in height were reported, which is, however, nowadays considered unlikely.
Trunk
In most species, the bark is discharged every year. New and old bark usually creates contrasting patterns on the trunk.
Leaves
On seedlings and young plants, the leaves are arranged usually opposite, sessile, partially covering the stem. On older plants, the leathery leaves are arranged in a winding pattern, on short petioles, narrow, lanceolate, evergreen, they line up to the sun giving little shade. In small depressions in the leaves, eucalyptus oil is produced. House varieties have small, soft spines.
Flowers
Most often white, but in some species yellow, pink or red. The parcel of the cup and the petals are combined to form a kind of cover. Stamens very numerous.
Fruit
Woody purses.

OCCURRENCE
Ok. 600 species from Australia, New Guinea and south-eastern Indonesia;

BOTANY
Botanists counted several dozen species of trees of this type – among them are both natural and man-made varieties. At the moment, most of the growing specimens of this type grow on plantations, which in the eighties occupied more than one and a half million hectares – and it is estimated that since that time the number has increased even more.