It is worth using for preventive and regenerative purposes Biofiton Healthy Stomach Phytotablets include medicinal plants, the effect of which is aimed at:

1.REDUCTION OF HEARTBURN SIGNS. Biological compounds of Licorice and Ginger Roots relieve heartburn, and Marshmallow Roots mucous substances protect gastric mucosa.

2.REDUCTION OF DISCOMFORT. Active substances of Marshmallow Roots, Yarrow Aerial Parts, Ginger, Tormentil and Liсorice Roots, Greater Plantain Leaves have soothing properties and mitigate gastrointestinal tract.

3.GOOD DIGESTION. Biologically active substances of Yarrow Aerial Parts, Ginger Roots and Tormentil Roots increase appetite, improve digestion and promote better uptake of nutrients.

4.GASTRIC MUCOSA PROTECTION. Mucous substances of Marshmallow Roots coat the gastric mucosa, and Licorice Roots promote tissues recovery.

5.IRRITATION MITIGATION.  Greater Plantain Leaves, Matricaria and Calendula Flowers remove irritation in gastrointestinal tract efficiently.

Infections of the gastrointestinal tract, gastroenteritis – it is a group of diseases characterized by inflammation of the digestive system covering both the stomach and small intestine, which leads to the simultaneous occurrence of diarrhea, vomiting and abdominal pain. Gastrointestinal infection is also called gastric or intestinal flu, although the disease has nothing to do with flu.

The most common cause of the disease in children around the world are rotaviruses. In adults, the disease is most often caused by noroviruses and Campylobacter bacteria. Less common causes are other bacteria or their toxins and parasites. The infection may occur as a result of eating an inadequately prepared meal or contaminated water and by close contact with an infected person.

The basis of treatment is adequate hydration. In mild or moderate cases, it is usually possible with oral irrigation fluids (DPN). In case of severe illness, it may be necessary to administer fluids intravenously. Viral gastrointestinal infection is most common in children and in developing countries.

SYMPTOMS
Infection of the digestive tract is most often manifested by diarrhea and vomiting, and sometimes only one of these symptoms occurs. Abdominal pain is also possible. Symptoms usually appear from 12 to 72 hours after contact with an infectious agent. In the case of virus, the disease disappears spontaneously within a week. Some viral causes can be manifested by fever, weakness, headache, and muscle pain. In the case of a bloody stool, the cause is usually not a virus but a bacterium. Some bacterial infections may be associated with acute abdominal pain that lasts for several weeks.
Children infected with rotavirus usually recover within three to eight days. However, in the case of poor countries, the treatment of severe cases is often unachievable so that diarrhea can persist for a long time. Dehydration is a common complication of diarrhea, and severely dehydrated children may exhibit delayed capillary return, delayed skin folding and respiratory distress. Recurrent infections may occur in places where sanitary conditions are inadequate and when there is malnutrition, growth disorders and intellectual deficits.
Reactive arthritis occurs in 1% of people after Campylobacter infection, while Guillain-Barré syndrome occurs in 0.1%. The haemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) may also occur as a result of the Shiga toxin produced by the Escherichia coli or Shigella family, which may result in decreased platelet counts, renal failure and hemolysis of erythrocytes. Children are more vulnerable to HUS than adults. Some viral infections may be associated with mild childhood epilepsy.

ETIOLOGY
Viruses (especially rotaviruses) and bacteria Escherichia coli and Campylobacter are the most common cause of gastrointestinal infection. However, there are many other infectious agents that can cause disease. There are also cases not related to infection, but they are much rarer than viral and bacterial causes. The risk of infection is much higher in children due to their lack of immunity and a relatively poorer level of hygiene.

Viral causes
Viruses causing gastrointestinal infection are rotaviruses, noroviruses, adenoviruses and astroviruses. Rotaviruses are the most common cause of viral gastrointestinal infection in children and are responsible for a similar percentage of cases in developed and developing countries. Viruses cause about 70% of cases of infectious diarrhea in children. Rotaviruses are a rare cause of disease among adults, which is associated with acquired immunity.
Noroviruses are the main cause of viral gastrointestinal infection among adults, being the cause of 90% of outbreaks of local epidemics in the US. Local outbreaks usually occur when a group of people spends time close to each other. People can carry the virus even after the diarrhea stops. Noroviruses cause about 10% of cases in children.

Bacterial causes
In developed countries, the main cause of bacterial infection of the gastrointestinal tract is Campylobacter jejuni, half of which is associated with contact with poultry. For children, bacteria cause 15% of cases, and the most common bacteria are Escherichia coli, Salmonella, Shigella, and Campylobacter. In the case of food contamination with bacteria and storage at room temperature for several hours, the bacteria develop and the risk of infection of the person consuming food increases. Some types of food usually associated with the disease are raw or undercooked meat, poultry, seafood and eggs, raw sprouts, unpasteurised milk and cream cheese, fruit and vegetable juices. In developing countries, especially in sub-Saharan Africa and Asia, cholera is often the cause of gastrointestinal infection. The infection is usually transmitted via water or food.
Toxigenine Clostridium difficile is an important cause of diarrhea, which is particularly common in the elderly. Infants can carry these bacteria without developing symptoms. It is a common cause of diarrhea in hospitalized people, often associated with the use of antibiotics.
The diarrhea induced by Staphylococcus aureus can also occur in people taking antibiotics. Travelers’ diarrhea is usually a type of bacterial infection of the digestive tract. Antacids seem to increase the risk of infection when exposed to microorganisms, including Clostridium difficile, Salmonella and Campylobacter. The risk is greater when using proton pump inhibitors than H2 receptor antagonists.

Parasitic causes
Many of the protozoa can cause gastrointestinal infection, but the most common cause is Giardia lamblia – although it may also be Entamoeba histolytica and Cryptosporidium. As a group, these factors account for about 10% of the causes of the disease among children. Giardia lamblia is most common in developing countries, but to a certain extent it is also present in other regions. It occurs most often in people who travel to their areas of occurrence, children in nurseries, homosexual men and as a result of natural disasters.

Transfer
The disease spreads through infected water or in the case of sharing personal items. In areas of dry and rainy season, water quality deteriorates during the rainy season, which correlates with outbreaks. In a moderate climate, infections are more common in the winter. Artificially fed children receiving food from inadequately disinfected bottles are particularly at risk of disease. The percentage of transmission is also associated with inadequate hygiene, especially among children, overcrowded dwellings, and earlier malnutrition. After immunization, adults can carry some of the microorganisms in an asymptomatic way, and therefore act as a reservoir of disease germs. While some of the factors (such as Shigella) occur in primates, others may occur in different animals (eg Giardia).

Non-infectious causes
There are many non-infectious causes among the causes of gastroenteritis. The most common of these are medications (e.g. non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs), some foods such as lactose (in people who do not digest it) and gluten (in people suffering from celiac disease). Crohn’s disease can also be a non-infectious cause of gastrointestinal symptoms. Toxic diseases can also occur. Food poisoning can be manifested by nausea, vomiting and diarrhea. It may be caused by botulism usually associated with inadequate food storage, ciguatera-related poisoning associated with infected predatory fish, scombrotoksizm associated with the intake of some species of infected fish, tetrodotoxin poisoning as a result of consumption of puffer fish and others.

PATHOPHYSIOLOGY
Gastrointestinal infection is usually defined as vomiting or diarrhea resulting from infection of the small intestine or large intestine. Changes in the small intestine are usually not inflammatory, whereas those in the large intestine are inflammatory. The number of pathogens in connection with which the infection occurs may vary from one (in the case of Cryptosporidium) to 108 (in the case of Vibrio cholerae).

DIAGNOSIS
In clinical conditions, gastrointestinal infection is most often diagnosed based on the symptoms occurring in the infected. Determining the exact cause is not usually necessary, because it does not affect the course of treatment. However, in the case of people who have blood stained in the stool, people exposed to poisoning alimentary tract and people who have recently visited developing countries should have a stool test. Diagnostic tests may also be carried out for control purposes. Due to hypoglycaemia in approximately 10% of infants and young children, monitoring of blood glucose is suggested. Electrolytes and kidney functions should also be tested for the dehydration hazard.

Dehydration
Determining whether a person is dehydrated is an important part of the study, and dehydration can be classified as mild (3-5%), moderate (6-9%) and severe (≥10%). For children, the most reliable sign of moderate or severe dehydration is prolonged capillary reversal, poor turgidity and respiratory distress. Other useful signs (in the case of a few of them) are dark circles under the eyes, reduced activity, lack of tearing and dry mouth. The normal amount of urine and fluid in the mouth is a sign that excludes dehydration. Laboratory tests are not of clinical relevance because they are not useful for dehydration.

Differential diagnosis
Other potential causes of symptoms that may indicate gastrointestinal infection are appendicitis, intestinal torsion, enteritis, urinary tract infection, and diabetes. Pancreatic insufficiency, short bowel syndrome, Whipple’s disease, celiac disease and laxative effects can also cause symptoms. Differential diagnosis can be complicated for people who only have vomiting or diarrhea (but not both).
Inflammation of the appendix may be manifested by vomiting, abdominal pain and slight diarrhea even in 33% of cases. This is a significant difference from gastrointestinal infection, during which significant diarrhea is one of the common symptoms. Infection of the lungs or urinary tract in children can also cause vomiting and diarrhea. Standard ketoacidosis (DKA) is characterized by abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting, but not diarrhea. The study showed that 17% of children diagnosed with gastrointestinal infection at first had in fact DKA.

PREVENTION

Lifestyle
Easy access to unpolluted water and adequate sanitation are an important factor in reducing infection rates and clinically treated serious cases of gastrointestinal infections. Personal measures (such as hand washing) help reduce the risk and incidence of gastrointestinal infections in both developing and developed countries by as much as 30%. Alcohol based gels can also be effective. Breastfeeding is important, especially in places where hygiene is at a low level, as is general hygiene improvement. Breast milk reduces the frequency of illness and shortens the duration of the disease. Avoiding infected food and drinks is also an effective measure.

Vaccinations
In connection with effectiveness and safety, the World Health Organization suggested in 2009 that all children in the world should be vaccinated against rotavirus. There are two commercially available rotavirus vaccines and work is underway on further vaccines. In Africa and Asia, these vaccines have helped to reduce the number of serious infections in infants and in countries where national vaccination programs for serious illness were introduced decreased. The vaccine can also prevent children who have not been vaccinated from getting sick because it reduces the amount of infection in the environment. Starting from the year 2000, the introduction of a rotavirus vaccination program in the US has reduced the number of people suffering from diarrhea by 80%. The first dose of the vaccine should be given to children from 6 to 15 weeks of age. Oral cholera vaccine is effective at 50-60% over a 2-year period.

Treatment
Gastrointestinal infection is usually an acute, limited disease that does not require medication. The treatment of mild to moderate dehydration involves the administration of oral rehydratation solution (ORS). However, metoclopramide or ondansetron may be useful in the treatment of vomiting, while scopolamine may be useful in the treatment of abdominal pain.

Dehydration
The main form of treatment of gastrointestinal infection in both children and adults is rehydration. Oral hydration is the preferred method, although intravenous therapy may be necessary for significant dehydration, consciousness disorders and inability of effective oral irrigation. Oral irrigation fluid consisting of complex bicarbonates (e.g., agents based on wheat or rice) may be more effective than simple sugars. Children under the age of 5 years should not be given drinks containing significant amounts of simple sugars, including sweetened beverages or fruit juices, because they may intensify fluid and electrolyte disturbances leading to deterioration of the patient’s condition. It is possible to administer ordinary water when specialized and more effective ORT agents are not available or are not consumed due to the taste. For the administration of fluids, especially in young children, a nasogastric tube can be used.

Diet
It is recommended to continue breastfeeding children fed in this way, and children receiving initial milk should receive food immediately after rehydrating using ORS. Usually, the administration of breast milk without lactose or with a reduced lactose content is not necessary. Children should be fed on the same diet during diarrhea, with the exception of foods with a high content of simple sugars. The BRAT diet (bananas, rice, apple mousse, toast and tea) is no longer recommended because it does not contain enough nutrients and is not considered more beneficial than a normal diet. Some probiotics have been recognized as a means of reducing disease time and reducing stool frequency. They can also be effective in the prevention and treatment of antibiotic-associated diarrhea. The products containing fermented milk (eg yoghurt) are also beneficial. Zinc-containing supplements also appear to be effective in both treatment and prevention of diarrhea among children in developing countries. The Biofiton Healthy Stomach supplement will support preventive prophylaxis as well as the regeneration of the stomach during and after the disease.

Antiemetics
Antiemetics may be helpful in the treatment of nuisance vomiting in children. Metoclopramide or ondansetron are effective relievers because they reduce the need for intravenous fluid administration, hospitalization and prevent vomiting. The use of ondansetron may be associated with an increasing percentage of children admitted to the hospital. Dimenhydrynat, although it eliminates vomiting, it probably does not give clinical benefit from the use.

antibiotics
Antibiotics are not usually used for gastrointestinal infections, although they are sometimes recommended when the symptoms are particularly severe or when the known or suspected cause is bacteria. For antibiotics, macrolide (such as azithromycin) is preferred over fluoroquinolone, which is associated with high fluoroquinolone resistance. Pseudomembranous colitis, usually associated with the use of an antibiotic, is treated by discontinuing the causative agent and using metronidazole or vancomycin. Bacteria and protozoa susceptible to treatment include Shigella, Salmonella typhi, and Giardia. For people with Giardia or Entamoeba histolytica, the use of tinidazole instead of metronidazole is recommended. The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends the use of antibiotics in young children who have both diarrhea and bleeding and fever.

Antidiarrheal drugs
Antidiarrheal drugs are at risk for potential complications and although clinical experience indicates that they are rare, they should not be given to people who have had bloody diarrhea or feverish diarrhea. Loperamide is often used for the symptomatic treatment of diarrhea. However, loperamide is not recommended for use in children as it may cross the immature blood-brain barrier and cause toxic effects. Bismuth basal salicylate, an insoluble trivalent complex compound of bismuth and salicylate, can be used for mild to moderate disease, but salicylate toxicity may be hazardous.

EPIDEMIOLOGY
It is estimated that in the world there are 3-5 billion cases of gastrointestinal infection every year, mainly among children and residents of developing countries. This results in approximately 1.3 million deaths among children under the age of five, with most of them occurring in the world’s poorest countries. Over 450,000 deaths are caused by the occurrence of rotovirus in children under five years of age. Cholera causes about 3-5 million cases and about 100,000 deaths annually. In developing countries, children under two years of age often get sick six or more times a year. In adults, the disease is less common, partly because of the development of immunity.
In 1980, gastrointestinal infection caused 4.6 million deaths in children, with most deaths in developing countries. The death rate has been significantly reduced (to around 1.5 million deaths per year) by 2000, largely due to the introduction and spread of oral rehydration treatment. In the United States, gastrointestinal infections are the second most common type of infection after a cold.
Every year, gastrointestinal infection causes 3.7 million visits to doctors in the US and 3 million visits to France. In the US, gastrointestinal infection can cost up to $ 23 billion a year, and rotaviruses alone cost $ 1 billion a year.

It is worth using for preventive and regenerative purposes Biofiton Healthy Stomach Phytotablets include medicinal plants, the effect of which is aimed at:

1.REDUCTION OF HEARTBURN SIGNS. Biological compounds of Licorice and Ginger Roots relieve heartburn, and Marshmallow Roots mucous substances protect gastric mucosa.

2.REDUCTION OF DISCOMFORT. Active substances of Marshmallow Roots, Yarrow Aerial Parts, Ginger, Tormentil and Liсorice Roots, Greater Plantain Leaves have soothing properties and mitigate gastrointestinal tract.

3.GOOD DIGESTION. Biologically active substances of Yarrow Aerial Parts, Ginger Roots and Tormentil Roots increase appetite, improve digestion and promote better uptake of nutrients.

4.GASTRIC MUCOSA PROTECTION. Mucous substances of Marshmallow Roots coat the gastric mucosa, and Licorice Roots promote tissues recovery.

5.IRRITATION MITIGATION.  Greater Plantain Leaves, Matricaria and Calendula Flowers remove irritation in gastrointestinal tract efficiently.