GENERAL INFORMATION
Hypericum or St. John’s wort (Hypericum perforatum L.) – plant species belonging to the hypericaceae family. Occurs naturally in Europe, West Asia, and North Africa. It was dragged to North and South America, southern Africa, Australia and New Zealand, Japan. It is used in medicine, agriculture and also as an ornamental plant.

PHARMACOLOGY
A dry extract from hypericum wort obtained by alcohol extraction may reduce the symptoms of mild or moderate depression. The mechanism of action is difficult to determine due to the variety of substances contained in St. John’s. None of the substances contained in St. John’s wort used alone in doses corresponding to St John’s Wort treatment has a sufficiently strong effect to achieve an antidepressant effect. It is assumed that only the interaction of these biologically active substances contained in St John’s wort allows for an antidepressant effect. Currently, the most important for antidepressant effect is attributed to hyperforin, and to a lesser extent to hypericin and flavonoids.

It is believed that the main mechanisms mediating this action are inhibition of the reuptake of serotonin, noradrenaline and dopamine and weak inhibition of the monoamine oxidase enzyme responsible for the breakdown of serotonin, noradrenaline and dopamine (neurotransmitters in the brain). In addition, the affinity of substances contained in St. John’s for adenosine, GABA and glutamate receptors. It has also been demonstrated that St. John’s ingredients in animal models cause desensitization of beta-adrenergic receptors and sensitization of 5-HT2 serotonin receptors. St. John’s wort also affects the expression of genes involved in the regulation of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis. St John’s antidepressant effects may be accompanied by anxiolytics and reduced insomnia. What’s more, according to some researchers, St John’s wort in some cases may be better tolerated than antidepressants.

CHEMISTRY
Herbal raw material from St. John’s wort, ie its inflorescences collected and dried, is called St John’s wort (Hyperici herba). It contains the red dye hypericin, pseudohiperycin, hyperforin, flavonoids (rutin, quercetin), hyperoside, bactericidal tannins, vitamins A and C, and essential oil

MORPHOLOGY
Sort
It reaches a height of 30-80 (or even 100) cm. Grow flowering shoots from the propagated rhizome.
Stalk
Straightly raised, branched in the upper part, wood-burning at the bottom. Naked, full, with few glands in the top part and ran reddishly. It has two longitudinal protruding slats.
Leaves
Arranged opposite, sitting, naked, elliptical to equilibrium, about 3 cm long. Leaf blade diaphoreticly dotted, with glands on the edge. There are tanks of essential oils in the translucent dots.
Flowers
Pedunculate, up to 3 cm in diameter, numerous, collected in a dense umbel, set in the angles of opposite pitophones. The parcels of the cup are lanceolate, compounded. Five-corona crown, yellow, black dotted petals, numerous stamens.
Fruit
Multilateral bag covered with glands. Black seeds, finely dotted.

OCCURRENCE
Occurs naturally in Europe, western Asia, and North Africa. It was dragged to North and South America, southern Africa, Australia and New Zealand, Japan. It is used in medicine, agriculture and also as an ornamental plant.

BOTANY
Perennial, hemicaliptophyte. Habitat: thermophilic oak wood, grassy thickets, thermophilic grasslands, also poor, balk. Blooms from June to August, produces a lot of pollen, which is used by insects visiting flowers.