Magnesium (Mg, Latin for magnesium) – chemical element, alkaline earth metal (second main group of the periodic table). It has three stable isotopes: 24Mg, 25Mg and 26Mg.
Magnesium was first recognized as an element by Joseph Black (1755), and isolated in pure form in 1808 by Humphry Davy. The Polish name “magnesium” was first proposed by Filip Neriusz Walter.

Occurrence
Magnesium is one of the most common elements, it is found in the Earth’s crust in an amount of 2.74% in the form of minerals: dolomite, magnesite, kizerite, bishofite, carnalite, kainite and chenite. In sea water, it occurs in an amount of about 0.12%, in the form of a Mg2 + salt solution. It is not found in elemental form.

Biological significance
Magnesium is part of chlorophyll, magnesium ions also play a large role in maintaining the osmotic pressure of blood and other tissues, and maintaining the proper structure of ribosomes. Is a component of bones, reduces the degree of hydration of cell colloids, participates in the transmission of signals in the nervous system.
Symptoms of magnesium deficiency in plants: wilting, leaf chlorosis, inhibition of photosynthesis.

The role of magnesium in the human body
The demand for magnesium in adults is 300-400 mg per day, and although it is rich in natural foods in the natural environment, there is less and less of it as a result of chemical fertilization of soil with potassium-containing compounds and the use of excessive amounts of food preservatives. Other causes of magnesium deficiency include: alcohol abuse, drinking coffee, using hormonal contraceptives, stress, eating excessive amounts of fat, and kidney failure.

Symptoms of magnesium deficiency in humans
Magnesium is involved in many processes that take place in the human body, so the range of symptoms of its deficiency is very wide.
increasing neuromuscular excitability and weakness and irregularities of the heart, which results in:
• vibrations in one of the eyelids or partially upper lips
• painful cramps in the calves
• feeling of numbness and tingling in the extremities
• Raynaud’s phenomenon
• increased hair loss
• breaking your nails
• tooth decay
• exasperation, anxiety, being lost
• restless legs syndrome
• depressive disorder
• difficulty concentrating
• sleep disorders, night sweats
• headaches, nausea
• sudden dizziness
• palpitations, arrhythmias
hypertension
atherosclerosis
• diarrhea
• glucose intolerance, type II diabetes
• kidney stones
• dysmenorrhea
• perinatal eclampsia,
• pregnancy poisoning
• bronchial asthma
• migraine
• metabolic syndrome

Magnesium supplementation can have many beneficial health effects in these conditions and symptoms.

Magnesium and depression
There are reasonable suspicions that magnesium deficiency in the diet may lead to depression. The level of this element was significantly lower in the cerebrospinal fluid of people with drug-resistant depression threatening suicide, and taken from people who committed suicide. The level of magnesium in the brain is not directly correlated with its level in the blood serum. Its non-invasive measurement in the brain is possible using 31P magnetic resonance spectroscopy in vivo, because the chemical shifts of phosphorus β nucleoside triphosphate signals can be correlated with the concentration of free Mg2 + ions. Magnesium content in the brain of people with drug-resistant depression was significantly lower than in healthy people. The method of measuring magnesium levels in the brain in vivo using the MRI method was published in 2008 and requires confirmation in clinical trials.

Magnesium chloride in people with type II diabetes and magnesium deficiency at low doses was as effective in treating depressive symptoms as the powerful antidepressant – imipramine. Cases have been reported that show that supplementation with soluble magnesium (4 × 125–300 mg Mg2 + ions per day) can even reduce clinical signs of depression in less than 7 days. Some studies show that effective pharmacological antidepressant therapy occurs with an increase in magnesium levels in the body.

Overdosage
Excess magnesium is removed by the kidneys. There is some possibility of an overdose of magnesium preparations. This risk therefore applies especially to elderly patients with significantly impaired renal function. Possible symptoms include: hypotension, excessive slow heart rate – bradycardia, respiratory failure, weakness of the reflexes – hyporeflexia, the death of an elderly person after ingestion of a very large amount of magnesium compounds to facilitate bowel movement.

Storage
More than half of magnesium is found in bones, a quarter in skeletal muscles, a quarter is distributed throughout the body, usually in the nervous system and organs with high metabolic activity, such as: myocardium, liver, gastrointestinal tract, kidneys, internal and external secretion glands , hemolymphatic system.

Sources of magnesium in food:

The richest sources (magnesium content in 1 kg of product):

bitter cocoa 16% – 4.2 g
buckwheat – 2.2 g
white beans – 1.7 g
bitter chocolate – 1.7 g
hazelnuts – 1.4 g
oat flakes – 1.3 g
chickpeas – 1.2 g
peas – 1.2 g
spinach – 0.5 g
mackerel, cod – 0.3 g

Easily soluble magnesium compounds (lactate, hydrogen aspartate, chloride, sulfate, citrate, glycinate, pidolinate) and insoluble (carbonate, oxide, hydroxide) are included in many dietary supplements. Individual compounds differ significantly in the amount of pure Mg2 + ion contained in them (a few to over a dozen%), which is why the content of Mg2 + ion is taken into account when comparing the dosage of preparations. Preparations of easily soluble compounds have better bioavailability, but are more expensive. The low availability of insoluble compounds can be improved by preparing their suspension in water (e.g. in the form of effervescent tablets, which, however, contain a significant amount of sodium). The addition of vitamin B6 enhances the action of magnesium preparations.
The source of magnesium in the diet may be East Asian nigari spice, in which MgCl2 · 6H2O is about 95%.