Nettle is a component of the Biofiton Healthy Pancreas supplement.
Thanks to the unique cryogenic grinding technology (Cryo Grinding) up to 100% of the cells are opened, increasing the efficiency and power of herbs several times.

GENERAL INFORMATION
Nettle (Urtica dioica, fr. ortie brulante, ger. Grobe Brennessel, it. Ortica maschio, sp. ortiga mayor) – species of plants from the nettle family (Urticaceae). Stinging nettle is used in many ways – it is a medicinal and cosmetic plant, edible and fodder, it also provides fibers, dye and is used in horticulture. Nettle also plays a role in human spiritual culture. Due to the presence of prickly-burning hairs, it causes painful irritation of the skin of humans and animals.

PHARMACOLOGY
Nettle has a long tradition of medicinal applications. Ancient authors (eg Pedanios Dioskurydes and Plinius the Elder) pointed out, among others on her ability to stop the hemorrhage, they recognized as an aphrodisiac, a remedy for poisoning and burns. Sugar-flavored juice was recommended for jaundice, asthma, tuberculosis and colic. In the treatment of nephrological disorders (including renal colic and hematuria) Nicolaus Copernicus used it, basing mainly on the works of Avicenna. In folk medicine, whipping nettles was practiced in rheumatic states, but it was done at least since antiquity. The Romans called this treatment utricatio and attributed to him extraordinary efficacy, also for example in the treatment of cholera. According to Krzysztof Kluk, “they behaved in a similar way in the male sex to the matter of unmarried couples.” Nettle was used in folk medicine in Poland also in skin diseases, hair care and dandruff, asthma and cough, less often in female diseases, diseases of the gastrointestinal tract and blood and colds. Dried herbs were burned like cigarettes with asthma, cough and toothaches. In Russia and in Africa, the nettle was also used for swelling, diarrhea and helminthia. After spreading in the world, the nettle quickly found its way to a wide range in folk medicine (eg in South and Central America) in various areas.
Nettle leaf (Folium Urticae), nettle herb (Herba Utricae dioicae), nettle root with runners (Radix Urticae), nettle seeds (Semen Utricae dioicae). In herbal medicine, they provide two equal species: nettle and nettle sail. Dried leaves are dark green to dark brown on the upper surface, lighter on the lower. The leaf blade is strongly shriveled, egg-shaped to the drain, up to 10 cm long and up to 5 cm wide with a thickly serrated edge and a heart-shaped or rounded root. Visible is a reticular veil clearly highlighted on the lower surface. The dried leaves have a characteristic smell and a slightly bitter, salty taste.

CHEMISTRY
In the roots of the nettle, lectins, agglutinins (including Urtica dioica agglutinin = UDA), various polysaccharides (glucans, arabinogalactan, glucose-galacturon compounds) and sterols have been identified, including β-sitosterol, organic acids (glycolic and glyceric), lecithin, waxes and mucous, mineral salts (including silica), scopoletin, lignans, fatty acids and negligible amounts of monoterpenes, triterpenes, phenols, tannins, coumarins.
In the leaves of the nettle there are: flavonoids, phenolic acids, silicas and organic acids (eg pantothenics), scopoletin, significant amounts of chlorophylls (up to 1%, chlorophyll and chlorophyll b in the proportion 3: 1), there is also a lot of β-carotene (0.003%, up to 50 mg% dry matter), xanthophylls (0.12%), protoporphyrin, vitamin C (0.1-0.6%), besides: triterpenes, sterols, oxylipines, tannins, glycokinins and 19% of mineral salts, in particular a lot of potassium (42.8 g kg of dry matter), calcium, iron (1668 mg in 1 kg of dry matter), phosphorus (5.5 g in 1 kg of dry matter). They are also distinguished by a high concentration of some rare elements, e.g. they contain up to 80 ppm of titanium (in other plants it is usually about 1 ppm). Nettle leaves also contain vitamin K, B2 and traces of essential oil (antofen). There is a compound close to resin acids in acetylene, acetylcholine, histamine, serotonin and traces of formic acid.
Dried nettles contain 20.8% of proteins (in digestible proteins constitute 10.8% of mass), 2.5% fats, 18% cellulose and a dozen or so percent of mineral salts

MORPHOLOGY
Nettle is a very variable species in terms of size, shape of leaves and inflorescences and the degree of body hair. The habitat (phenotypic change) has a significant impact on plant morphology. In sunny places the plants are, for example, more hairy.
Stalk
Single or rarely and weakly branched, usually 0.4 to 1 or 1.5 m high, although sometimes reaching up to 3 m in height. Czterokanieciasta, covered more densely or less often with bristly, secretory burning hairs and fewer non-stinging hairs. Underground, the plant produces highly branched sympodial and age-tending stolons. Fibrous roots grow from nodes of the rhizome.
Leaves
The foliage is crossed. Four nodal bracts with a length of 5-8 mm (rarely shorter – up to 2 mm) grow from nodes outside the leaf pair. Leaf petioles reach from 2.5 to 4 cm in length and are hairy with hairs similar to stalks. The leaf blade has a variable shape, from broadly-to-narrow to spherical (lower leaves are wider, upper narrower), and sizes from 5 to 13 cm long (rarely even longer) and 2.5-6 cm wide. The leaves are thickly serrated from the edge, sometimes twice (on the edge they have 15-21 thick teeth). The end of the plaque is sharpened, usually long. From the heart-shaped base there are 3 or 5 strands with conductive bundles, which are curved arched anastomosally, through 3-5 secondary branches. The upper side of the leaf is usually covered with rare burning hairs, while on the bottom they are numerous.
Flowers
The plant is usually dioecious (one-legged subspecies in North American subspecies). Flowers inconspicuous (up to 1.5 mm in diameter), green, with a four-cornered flowering, are gathered in loose or dense clusters of inflorescences longer than petioles, growing from the groin of leaves (the better access to light, the more dense and stiff inflorescences). In male flowers there are 4 stamens (up to 30,000 pollen grains are produced), in the female there is one single-chamber post made of two carpel with a brush-like stigma. In these flowers, the two leaves of the perianth are larger, and two smaller ones. Female inflorescences are suspended after blossoming.
Fruits
Single-seeded, ovate or narrow-alberta and slightly constricted peanuts up to 1.2 mm long, surrounded by permanent perianth lobes and often with preserved remains of the post at the top. One plant can produce about 22 thousand. fruit, but in the case of plants growing in the shade, the number is much smaller and reaches only 500 fruits. The weight of 1 thousand fruit is from 0.16 to 0.26 g. Whole fruit heads are discharged.

OCCURRENCE
Nettle is found in the wild state in Europe, Asia, North Africa, North America, and has been dragged into other areas and continents.

BOTANY
Nettle is perennial – hemicryptophyte – aerial shoots die in autumn and the plant spends winter in the form of underground rhizomes. With the advent of spring, from the sleeping buds found on the rhizomes, sprouted above the ground in the second half of March, the foliage sprouts and grows rapidly. The nettle is wind-blowing. Blooms from June to October (in the north of the range until the end of August), with dusting during hot days, when male flowers after warming up, develop and straighten the strands of stamens, spilling pollen at the same time. Female flowers usually open slightly later than men’s. Cross-pollination is necessary for fertilization. In August, fruit begins to mature. At the same time the leaves begin to wither, and the stems turn yellow or red. The fruit is sown by the wind, but often remains on the plants to the very frosts. Nettle seeds are not at rest and can germinate already 5-10 days after ripening, where they germinate in 90%. Most seeds have a short lifespan, some, however, retain the ability to germinate for 5 or even 10 years. Germination is hypogeous, but the growth of hypocotyl causes the cotyledons to rise above the ground surface. The cotyledons are oval with a width of up to 1 mm and a length of 1.5 to 4 mm, with a notch at the end. They are placed on petioles, 2-5 mm long. Both petioles and cotyledones are rarely covered with single-celled hairs. Epicotyl (supruscular stalk) is up to 9 mm in length and it has an Italian scalding effect on it. The youthful leaves of the seedlings are broadly round, on the edge thickly serrated, the teeth are rounded. The lamina set on petioles, 1-2 mm long, reaches 4-8 mm long. The young nettle is loosely hairy, there are few stinging hairs.
The nettle is spread with seeds, but also vegetatively, but under unfavorable conditions (e.g. at the northern border of its range) mainly with rhizomes. Individuals over time form large clones (polycormons) consisting of many aerial shoots (ramet). Young plants begin to grow vegetatively in the first year of life. The rhizome may be more than 1.5 m in length during the year (usually 0.5 m). The estimated life time of individual clonal animals may exceed 50 years.
The number of nettle chromosomes is 2n = 48 or 52. Significant heterozygous variation of plants leads to a high heterogeneity of offspring obtained from seeds, which affects variability of the species (eg differences in the flowering time of plants obtained from seeds of one plant reach 4 weeks). The hypothesis was that the tetracolidal nettle was created as a result of hybridization of diploid species – Urtica galeopsifolia and Urtica sondenia.
The above-ground shoots of the nettle are covered with more or less dense stinging hairs. They contain irritating fluid, which when added to the skin in an amount of 0.0001 mg causes the formation of bubbles on it. Burning hair is a single cell mounted on a multicellular Italian basis. This cell in the lower part is expanded, in the upper narrowed and here slightly bent and crowned with a small head. The cell walls are saturated with silica and calcium carbonate, and just under the head are very thin. As a result, even a gentle touch causes the tip to snap off and stick sharp and hard hair into the skin and release the contents of the vacuole. The head at the top of the Italian is saturated with silica. In the nettle tissues there are also cystolites made of silica (phytolites) with a polyhedral, triangular shape.
The sucker’s share is from 18 to 22% of the weight of dry stems (more cultivated varieties). Elementary fibers have a length of 2 to 12 cm, most often 2 to 4 cm and a diameter of usually 40-50 μm. The fibers are made of pure cellulose, and the wood is rarely only on their surface. Older leaves at the top are scored because of the cystolites contained in the spherical cells.