Pantothenic acid – an organic chemical compound, very widespread in the plant and animal world (the particle pan means “everything”, “all-in”, and pantothenic means otherwise “ubiquitous”). It is necessary for every living cell, but it is rare in the free state in nature. Chemically, pantothenic acid is pantamic acid amide and β-alanine.
Pantothenic acid as vitamin B5
Pantothenic acid is sometimes erroneously identified with vitamin B5 (ATC: A 11 HA 31). In fact, vitamin B5 is a mixture of the following chemical compounds:
• pantothenic acid,
• pantheon (a pantothenic acid derivative),
• panthenol (belonging to the group of alcohols, not found in nature, but biologically active in relation to humans and animals),
• coenzyme A (a biologically active form of pantothenic acid).
After absorption, pantothenic acid undergoes the following transformations:
• phosphorylation – suitable kinases form phosphopopentothenic acid
• attachment of cysteine, pantotenylcysteine is formed
• decarboxylation of the attached cysteine - phosphopanthantease is formed.
Then the phosphophopotein can take part in two different transformations:
• reaction with ATP (with phosphorylated ribose in the third position), which is a nucleotide donor – adenosine-3,5-diphosphate; as a result, Coenzyme A is formed;
• the reaction leading to the formation of ACP (protein carrier of acyl groups (called Acyl Carrier Protein)).
The role in the body – essential for the proper metabolism of proteins, sugars and fats and the synthesis of certain hormones, accelerates wound healing, determines the proper course of the energy release process, prevents fatigue and improves the cardiovascular, nervous and digestive systems, is involved in the production of fats, cholesterol , hormones and neurotransmitters, participate in tissue regeneration, improve pigmentation and hair condition.
The effects of deficiency – disorders of the nervous system, learning difficulties, excessive irritability, fainting, depression, loss of coordination, pain and stiffness in the joints, feeling of numbness, tingling and cramps in the arms and legs, unsteady gait, hair loss, premature gray hair, baldness, changes dermatitis, burning sensation, eye problems, skin cracks at the corners of the mouth and eyes, digestive system disorders, loss of appetite, constipation, indigestion, fatigue, susceptibility to infection, poor wound healing, frequent upper respiratory tract infections, cardiovascular disorders , acceleration of cardiac function.
The effects of excess – it is not toxic, but excess can cause diarrhea.
Sources of vitamins – liver, wheat bran, fish (eg herring, mackerel, trout), mushrooms, whole milk, chicken meat, royal jelly, sunflower seeds, cheese, nuts, eggs, avocado fruits, oranges, potatoes, broccoli, dark rice , melons, wholemeal bread, soy, peanut butter, bananas, yerba mate.
Demand – about 7 mg a day.